python爬虫练习selenium+BeautifulSoup库,爬取b站搜索内容并保存excel

✍️Auth:star皆空       Date:2022/10/13       Cat:python相关       👁️:91 次浏览

一、简介

前面文章已经介绍了selenium库使用,及浏览器提取信息相关方法。参考:python爬虫之selenium库

现在目标要求,用爬虫通过浏览器,搜索关键词,将搜索到的视频信息存储在excel表中。

二、创建excel表格,以及chrome驱动

n = 1
word = input('请输入要搜索的关键词:')
driver = webdriver.Chrome()
wait = WebDriverWait(driver,10)

excl = xlwt.Workbook(encoding='utf-8', style_compression=0)

sheet = excl.add_sheet('b站视频:'+word, cell_overwrite_ok=True)
sheet.write(0, 0, '名称')
sheet.write(0, 1, 'up主')
sheet.write(0, 2, '播放量')
sheet.write(0, 3, '视频时长')
sheet.write(0, 4, '链接')
sheet.write(0, 5, '发布时间')

三、创建定义搜索函数

里面有button_next 为跳转下一页的功能,之所有不用By.CLASS_NAME定位。看html代码可知

<button class="vui_button vui_pagenation--btn vui_pagenation--btn-side">下一页</button>

class名称很长,而且有空格,如果selenium用By.CLASS_NAME定位,有空格会报错:selenium.common.exceptions.NoSuchElementException: Message: no such element

所以这里用By.CSS_SELECTOR方法定位。

def search():
    driver.get("https://www.bilibili.com/")
    input = wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CLASS_NAME, 'nav-search-input')))
    button = wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.CLASS_NAME, 'nav-search-btn')))

    input.send_keys(word)
    button.click()
    print('开始搜索:'+word)
    windows = driver.window_handles
    driver.switch_to.window(windows[-1])
    get_source()
    #第1页跳转第2页
    button_next = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR,'#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_x50 > div > div > button:nth-child(11)')
    wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR, '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.video-list.row > div:nth-child(1) > div > div.bili-video-card__wrap.__scale-wrap')))
    button_next.click()
    get_source()

四、定义跳转下一页函数

这里有调转下一页函数,那为什么在上面搜索函数也有下一页功能,因为分析代码。

#第2页的CSS_SELECTOR路径
#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_x50 > div > div > button:nth-child(11)

#后面页面的CSS_SELECTOR路径
#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_lg > div > div > button:nth-child(11)

第1页的CSS_SELECTOR和后面的页面的CSS_SELECTOR的不一样,所以把第1页跳第2页单独加在了上面搜索函数中。

def next_page():
    button_next = wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR,'#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_lg > div > div > button:nth-child(11)')))
    button_next.click()
    wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR, '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.video-list.row > div:nth-child(1) > div > div.bili-video-card__wrap.__scale-wrap')))
    get_source()

五、定义获取页面代码函数

上面定义的函数都有get_source()函数,这个函数就是现在需要创建的,用途获取页面代码,传入BeautifulSoup

def get_source():
    html = driver.page_source
    soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
    save_excl(soup)

六、获取元素并存到excel表

通过BeautifulSoup循环获取页面信息,并存到创建好的excel表中。

def save_excl(soup):
    list = soup.find(class_='video-list row').find_all(class_="bili-video-card")
    for item in list:
        # print(item)
        video_name = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--tit').text
        video_up = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--author').string
        video_date = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--date').string
        video_play = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__stats--item').text
        video_times = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__stats__duration').string
        video_link = item.find('a')['href'].replace('//', 'https://')
        print(video_name, video_up, video_play, video_times, video_link, video_date)

        global n

        sheet.write(n, 0, video_name)
        sheet.write(n, 1, video_up)
        sheet.write(n, 2, video_play)
        sheet.write(n, 3, video_times)
        sheet.write(n, 4, video_link)
        sheet.write(n, 5, video_date)

        n = n +1

七、定义main函数,循环获取跳转每一页

这里默认是10页的数据,后面就不获取了,可以自行调整页面数。最后保存表名。

def main():
    search()
    for i in range(1,10):
        next_page()
        i = i + 1
    driver.close()
if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
    excl.save('b站'+word+'视频.xls')

八、最终代码执行效果

这里CSS_SELECTOR路径,我这里尽量的在最底层,所以比较长,因为短路径,经常性等待时间不够长,没有加载所有页面,提取不到信息而报错。

from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC
import xlwt
import time

n = 1
word = input('请输入要搜索的关键词:')
driver = webdriver.Chrome()
wait = WebDriverWait(driver,10)

excl = xlwt.Workbook(encoding='utf-8', style_compression=0)

sheet = excl.add_sheet('b站视频:'+word, cell_overwrite_ok=True)
sheet.write(0, 0, '名称')
sheet.write(0, 1, 'up主')
sheet.write(0, 2, '播放量')
sheet.write(0, 3, '视频时长')
sheet.write(0, 4, '链接')
sheet.write(0, 5, '发布时间')

def search():
    driver.get("https://www.bilibili.com/")
    input = wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CLASS_NAME, 'nav-search-input')))
    button = wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.CLASS_NAME, 'nav-search-btn')))

    input.send_keys(word)
    button.click()
    print('开始搜索:'+word)
    windows = driver.window_handles
    driver.switch_to.window(windows[-1])
    wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR,
                                               '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.video.i_wrapper.search-all-list')))
    get_source()
    print('开始下一页:')
    button_next = driver.find_element(By.CSS_SELECTOR,
                                      '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_x50 > div > div > button:nth-child(11)')
    button_next.click()
    #time.sleep(2)
    wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR, '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.video-list.row > div:nth-child(1) > div > div.bili-video-card__wrap.__scale-wrap > div > div > a > h3')))
    get_source()
    print("完成")

def next_page():
    button_next = wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR,
                                      '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.flex_center.mt_x50.mb_lg > div > div > button:nth-child(11)')))
    button_next.click()
    print("开始下一页")
    #time.sleep(5)
    wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CSS_SELECTOR,
                                               '#i_cecream > div > div:nth-child(2) > div.search-content > div > div > div.video-list.row > div:nth-child(1) > div > div.bili-video-card__wrap.__scale-wrap > div > div > a > h3')))
    get_source()
    print("完成")

def save_excl(soup):
    list = soup.find(class_='video-list row').find_all(class_="bili-video-card")
    for item in list:
        # print(item)
        video_name = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--tit').text
        video_up = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--author').string
        video_date = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__info--date').string
        video_play = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__stats--item').text
        video_times = item.find(class_='bili-video-card__stats__duration').string
        video_link = item.find('a')['href'].replace('//', 'https://')
        print(video_name, video_up, video_play, video_times, video_link, video_date)

        global n

        sheet.write(n, 0, video_name)
        sheet.write(n, 1, video_up)
        sheet.write(n, 2, video_play)
        sheet.write(n, 3, video_times)
        sheet.write(n, 4, video_link)
        sheet.write(n, 5, video_date)

        n = n +1

def get_source():
    html = driver.page_source
    soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
    save_excl(soup)

def main():
    search()
    for i in range(1,10):
        next_page()
        i = i + 1
    driver.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()
    excl.save('b站'+word+'视频.xls')

执行输入MV执行结果:

在文件夹也生成了excel文件表


打开,信息保存完成


同理,输入其他关键词,也可以。

以上,简单的爬取搜索信息就完成了,如果要在服务器上隐藏运行,参考我上篇文章:python爬虫之selenium库

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